Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint
How does the Knee joint work?
Find out more in this web based movie.
Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.
The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.
Find out more about Knee Arthroscopy from the following links.
A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces an arthritic knee joint with an artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses’.
Find out more about Total Knee Replacement with the following links.
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the center of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn’t heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.
ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incisions and low complication rates.
ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon
ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon
This simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement. The knee joint is made up of 3 compartments, the patellofemoral and medial and lateral compartments between the femur and tibia (i.e. the long bones of the leg). Often only one of these compartments wears out, usually the medial one. If you have symptoms and X-ray findings suggestive of this then you may be suitable for this procedure.
Find out more about Unicondylar Knee Replacement with the following links.
This means that part or all of your previous knee replacement needs to be revised. This operation varies from very minor adjustments to massive operations replacing significant amounts of bone and hence is difficult to describe in full.
Find out more about Revision Knee Replacement with the following links.
Meniscus is the C-shaped two pieces of cartilage located between thighbone and shin bone that act as shock absorbers and cushion the joints. Meniscus distributes the body weight uniformly across the joint and avoids the pressure on any one part of the joint and development of arthritis.
Find out more about Meniscus Repairs with the following links.
A meniscal tear is a tear that occurs in the cartilage of the knee. The meniscus is a small, "C" shaped piece of cartilage in the knee joint. Each knee has two menisci, the medial meniscus on the inner aspect of the knee and the lateral meniscus on the outer aspect of the knee.
Find out more about Meniscus Tears with the following links.
Patellar tendinitis, also known as "jumper’s knee" is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.
Find out more about Patella Tendinitis with the following links.
Patellar (knee cap) instability results from one or more dislocations or partial dislocations (subluxations). Patella is the small piece of bone in front of the knee that slides up and down the femoral groove (groove in the femur bone) during bending and stretching movements.
Find out more about Patella Instability with the following links.
Patellofemoral pain syndrome also called runner’s knee refers to pain under and around your kneecap. Patellofemoral pain is seen in number of medical conditions such as anterior knee pain syndrome, patellofemoral malalignment, and chondromalacia patella that cause pain around the front of the knee.
Find out more about Patellofemoral syndrome with the following links.
Osteochondral Transfer (OATS)
Osteochondral Autologous Transfer Surgery (OATS) is a surgical procedure to treat isolated cartilage defects which usually 10 to 20mm in size. The procedure involves transfer of cartilage plugs taken from the non-weight bearing areas of the joint and transferring into the damaged areas of the joint.
Find out more about Osteochondral Transfer (OATS) with the following links.
Microfracture is a surgical procedure used for cartilage restoration. Cartilage restoration is a surgical procedure where orthopedic surgeons stimulate the growth of new cartilage tissue and restore the normal function.
Find out more about Microfracture with the following links.
Articular Cartilage is the white tissue lining the end of bones where these bones connect to form joints. Cartilage acts as cushioning material and helps in smooth gliding of bones during movement. An injury to the joint may damage this cartilage which cannot repair on its own.
Find out more about Cartilage Restoration with the following links.
Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction is a surgical procedure indicated in patients with more severe patellar instability. Medial patellofemoral ligament is a band of tissue that extends from the femoral medial epicondyle to the superior aspect of the patella.
Find out more about MPFL Reconstruction with the following links.
Click on the topics below to find out more from the Orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
- ACL Injury: Should it be fixed?
- Activities After a Knee Replacement
- Additional Resources on the Knee
- Adolescent Anterior Knee Pain
- Arthritis of the Knee
- Care of the Aging Knee: Baby Boomers May Need Lifestyle Changes
- Cemented and Cementless Knee Replacement
- Deep Vein Thrombosis
- Frequently Asked Questions about Osteoarthritis of the Knee
- Goosefoot (Pes Anserine) Bursitis of the Knee
- Knee Arthroscopy
- Knee Arthroscopy Exercise Guide
- Knee Implants
- Knee Replacement Exercise Guide
- Kneecap (Prepatellar) Bursitis
- Meniscal Tear
- Meniscal Transplants
- Minimally Invasive Total Knee Replacement
- Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Osteoarthritis of the Knee
- Orthopaedists Research Female Knee Problems
- Osgood-Schlatter Disease (Knee Pain)
- Osteonecrosis of the Knee
- Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Tear
- Rotating Platform/Mobile-bearing Knees
- Runner’s Knee (Patellofemoral Pain)
- Surgical Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee
- The Knee
- Total Knee Replacement
- Unstable Kneecap
- Viscosupplementation Treatment for Arthritis